Immunohistochemical Staining
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Email: mbutt@toxpath.net



Choline Acetyl Transferase (ChAT)

Specific marker for cholinergic neurons in the brain and central nervous system. At TPS, this stain can be used for stereologic investigations in the brain (such as investigations of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain).

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP)
Choline Acetyl Transferase (ChAT)
Ionized calcium Binding Adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1)
Neuronal Nuclear Antigen (NeuN)
Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5)
Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP)



Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)

GFAP is an IHC stain that stains an intermediate filament in astrocytes. Because astrocytes proliferate and/or enlarge in response to a variety of central nervous system (CNS) injuries, GFAP provides a sensitive indicator of the astrocytic reaction to CNS damage.


Ionized calcium Binding Adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1)

IBA-1 is an IHC stain that labels a protein expressed in macrophages and microglial cells, and is upregulated when these cells are activated, making this stain a sensitive indicator of microglial activation in the brain.


Neuronal Nuclear antigen (NeuN)

Neuron-specific marker for various neuronal cell types throughout the nervous system, including specific regions of the brain (cerebellum, cerebral cortex, etc.), spinal cord, and dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia.
Due to the highly specialized nature of many of the projects performed at TPS, many special and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains are used in order to provide as all-encompassing an investigation as possible.​ Most immunohistochemical staining at TPS can be performed in either paraffin or frozen sections.

In addition to the stains listed below, TPS offers a variety of standard staining, and is continually incorporating more and more staining techniques. If you have a question about any of the stains listed here, or are curious about any that aren't, please contact our Directory of Laboratory Services about additional neurohistology capabilities.
Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5)

​A general neuronal phenotypic marker which targets a protein in many neurons and nerve fibers at all levels of the central nervous system. At TPS, PGP9.5 is commonly used for analyzing nerve fibers in skin samples, such as intraepidermal nerve fiber density investigations.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)

TH is an IHC stain which labels tyrosine hysroxylase, a key enzyme in the production of dopamine and norepinephrine. Because of this activity, this stain labels neurons (the cell body and the neurites) using dopamine or norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter.



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